• Understanding how your horse eats will mean that you’re well on your way to understanding how to best manage the situation if your horse has taken ill with founder.

    A horse pretty much eats all the time. They like to graze and it’s good for them. This is their natural feeding state; it’s the best horse feed for them and the best manner in which they can eat. In fact, there isn’t a whole lot of difference between what you should give them when they have founder and what and how you should feed them if they’re in the best of health.

    Let the horse eat as much grass as possible and don’t give into the temptation to give you horse the horse products you might be offered down at the general store run by Mr. Hooper. Another thing is not to give into the temptation of giving them horse treats. It’s no treat for them – what they want is the simple healthy foods that will make them better able to deal with their illness. Stay away from horse treats to prevent laminitis.

    Grass is some of the best stuff that horsey can get. It has within its green leaves most of their requirements in terms of nutrition. Grass also has silca. This substance is often thrown haphazardly into equine supplements but in truth it is a bloody good one and is important for your horses dental health.

    Think about the wild horse such as you’ll find in some parts of the US and in the Camaguey region in France. They feed on forage alone as they’re unable to negotiate shops and bags of horse products by themselves, yet they lead quite healthy lives and the incidence of laminitis amongst wild horses is very low. There’s some food for thoughts.

    In fact, this is an interesting point at which to stop and ponder that last point. The art of feeding horses is something that isn’t all that complicated. Instead of looking through the shops and suppliers for the best horse feed, you should listen to and observe what your horse does and how he eats. Grass and hay are what they will overwhelmingly go for. Horses are so beautiful.

    Horses that feed away on grass all day are not inclined to get obesity. The modern horses are being brought up to be fat and unhealthy and if you want your ill horse to become healthier, you’ve got to listen and observe. If your horse is an easy keeper, then one thing that you have to watch is actually not to give him too much pasture. On the other hand, if you have a hard keeper, then let them get as much grass as they can get into them. You can even supplement it with alfalfa hay.

    In fact, hay is the next brilliant thing you should give them after grass. The thing is that for most of us, we’re not able to let our horses eat outdoors the whole year round. The next best thing should do the trick. Finding good quality hay is the trick here. It’s a good idea to put the feed under a test just in case that it’s not as full of minerals and vitamins as it should be. If so, you might just have to get some equine supplements. Same thing applies for the easy keeper in terms of making sure that they don’t overdose on this stuff and, conversely, no need to worry about over feeding if it’s a hard keeper.

    The alfalfa hay should also be one that you have to be a little extra careful with. It is the best type there is and, as such, you need to watch the quantity for the easy keeper, but you also need to make sure that it isn’t moldy or dusty. If you have either or both, then the problem will only be made worse. For the love of horses.

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  • Common knowledge of horse nutrition has grown substantially over the last fifteen years. Having all of this important research available helps owners better understand the nutritional needs of equines. This research allows horse owners to learn about the basic nutritional requirements of all classes of horses, something that was not available to them in the past.

    Equine Digestive System

    If you have to feed a horse, you must have to have an understanding of how the digestive system works including its physical limitations and areas that are involved in digestion and absorption. Horses have simple stomachs that operate much like that of pigs with the majority of digestion and absorption occurring in front of the cecum. The majority of the process of absorption occurs in the small intestines although a smaller amount of nutrient absorption occurs in the cecum and colon.

    It doesn’t matter what into what class your horse falls (young and growing; work horse; mature horse; idle horse; pregnant and lactating mare); each must consume enough of the essential nutrients: water, energy, protein, minerals and vitamins. Take care of your horse and it will take care of you.

    Nutritional Basics of an Equine

    Your horse needs more than just horse feed; there are some essential nutrients that he must consume daily in order to ensure continued good health. The basic nutrients your horse needs are:

    • Water

    All horses regardless of their class or age must have a source of clean, fresh water in order to maintain normal physiological function. It is essential to regularly clean water buckets and tanks in order to remove algae and other foreign material. Limitations on water tend to be more common winter because of freezing temperatures, so you want to make sure your water sources do not freeze. Keep in mind horses and other animals will die much quicker from lack of water than lack of food.

    • Energy

    Horses need energy in order to work. Like humans and other animals age has a lot to do with their energy needs as does the amount and duration of the work. The highest energy requirements are usually in young, growing horses who work very hard and lactating mares. Horses are able to meet their energy requires as starch breaks down and other soluble carbohydrates and from fatty acids in the cecum. The best sources of energy in concentrate mixes are cereal grains like corn, oats, barley, wheat,
    wheat byproducts and other similar products.

    On the other hand mature horses, idle horses and mares during the first two trimesters of pregnancy do not requires as much energy and can fulfill their needs on either high quality hay pasture or a combination of both. For young horses, those growing quickly, work horses and lactating mares that are hay fed, it will be necessary to supplement the feed with sources of energy to meet their needs.

    • Protein

    Horses also require protein in order to synthesize various body tissues. Proteins are comprised of amino acids although the composition will vary. There is no documentation regarding the horse’s requirements for amino acids, but if you feed your horse a sufficient amount of protein, he should receive enough amino acids to meet his needs. The requirements will vary depending into which class your horse falls with the highest requirement being among young, growing horses. Mature horses need less protein than young horses because they only need it for maintenance rather than growing new tissue. It is a fallacy that horses who exercise more do not require more protein that horses that are not in training.

    • Minerals

    Horses need minerals for many purposes. Approximately seventy percent of the minerals in a horse’s body are made up of calcium and phosphorus. As a result it is essential to adequate horse nutrition for these minerals to comprise the largest mineral content in horse feed. In fact, horses are more prone to suffer from calcium and phosphorus deficiencies than from any other mineral. I love horses.

    • Vitamins

    The most common vitamin supplements in horse nutrition are A, D and E. Even though you may not provide supplements of B complex vitamins, it may not be necessary even in the horse feed of performance horses. Vitamin A is the vitamin that is most likely to be marginal in the diets of most horses. However, you can solve the problem by making sure your orange gets plenty of green forages and hays that are cured properly.

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  • Blow flies fall into the Diptera order of flies but do not bite. You can find these flies all over the world where they usually survive by feeding and laying eggs inside of the carcasses of dead animals. These unsanitary living conditions means they carry many different diseases to humans and other animals thus making fly control of these pests essential in order to reduce the risk of disease.

    There are two different categories of blow flies: green flies or green bottle flies and blue flies or blue bottle flies. Green flies are so called because of the metallic green color and are at their most active during the summer season. Blue flies tend to vary from metallic blue to purple and are more common during cooler temperatures.  You can find both blue flies and green flies in the cities and rural areas.

    Blow flies have the same four life stages as other flies with the female having the capability of laying thousands of eggs during her lifetime. Female blow flies will deposit most of these eggs on animal carcasses with those that survive the transition hatching in less than twelve hours. Once the egg hatches the developing larvae will feed on what remains of the animal carcass. During warm weather the develop fly will reach adulthood in eleven to twenty days during which time the maggot will go through three larval stages. The last stage will cause the larvae to leave its food source in order to enter the pupae stage which takes anywhere from five to twelve days to complete. This final stage does not require the fly to partake of any food—it is a period of rest before it enters adulthood.

    The larvae of the blow fly can actually provide assistance in preventing infection. You can often find flies on dogs that have wounds all over their bodies. You may also find cases of doctors who treat patients with blow fly maggots.  The larvae will eat the dead flesh, and if doctors handle it correctly they will not bother the healthy flesh. During periods of war sterile blow fly larvae are often used to prevent the growth of bacteria and remove any dying tissue on wounded soldiers. You can recognize both green and blue bottle flies because of their color as well as their loud buzzing sound. These flies are rather large in size and tend to be rather loud and annoying; this is especially noticeable if you have a bottle fly infestation that amounts of hundreds of flies.

    Fly control of this species is not unlike that of other types of flies: a combination of cultural, biological and chemical methods. Combining all three methods provides the most effective and inexpensive method of fly control.

    The cultural method of getting rid of flies means you must make a change in the environment so it is no longer inviting for breeding flies. In order to do this you assess what these flies need in order to complete their development and remove those items. The best ways to complete this is to remove all animal carcasses that may attract the female blow fly looking for a place to lay her eggs. You want to bury pet dogs, cats and birds a minimum of twelve inches in the ground to prevent any flies from reaching them. Any animals you find on the road or wild animals need to be put into plastic bags and tightly sealed to keep the flies away.

    Other sanitation methods you want to utilize for getting rid of flies include protecting food and making sure you wash trash cans regular to prevent any buildup. Getting rid of flies in the house is usually rather simple: keep all doors closed and be sure your windows have tightly fitting screens.

    Biological methods of control are very effective for blow flies with a large number of predators and parasites available. There are many varieties of insects, birds and bats that are attracted to the larvae of blow flies; all you need to do is encourage these predators to live and breed on your property in order to prevent blow fly infestation.

    Chemical control involves the use of various insecticides in order to control fly infestation. The most common method of chemical control is using insecticides that contain pyrethrins. You should only use chemical methods after you have exhausted all other methods.

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  • With the increasing incidents of west Nile virus in the continental U.S.,  most specifically in Texas, there is increasing concern that global warming may be contributing to the expansion of malaria.  However, University of Florida researchers have deemed it unlikely that current high temperatures will have a detrimental impact on the spread of malaria.

    Both policy makers and scientists have been increasingly concerned that warming temperatures would exacerbate environmental conditions leading to malaria appearing in previously untouched areas or worsening in areas where malaria has already taken hold.  A team of six scientists, including local team members of the UR’s noted geometry and biology departments as well as the university’s emerging pathogens institute have generated a report indicating historic relationships between global warming in contractions in the overall rate and intensity of the spread of malaria.  By predicating the huge your potential outbreaks on previous trends it appears unlikely that malaria will spread out of control as long as mosquito vectors continue working together to lie and malaria control and remain prepared to address the impact of increasing warming on malaria’s global distribution.

    The dedicated UF team, a significant part of the multinational malaria atlas project cleaned that malaria control efforts during the previous century have successfully hindered malaria’s presence.  Malaria’s presence is now primarily restricted to South America, South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa with the majority of humans fatalities confined to the African continent.  It is no mystery that the reason behind Malaria’s shrinkage has much to do with relentless mosquito control efforts including increased access to better quality Health Care, economic development and urbanization.  While the banned pesticide DDT played a major role in eliminating the disease from many countries in Southern Europe, Russia and other countries throughout the world between 1955 and 1969 the reduction of mosquito breeding grounds dramatic improvements in housing and reduced agriculture all were seen to play a major role in controlling and inhibiting Malaria’s spread.

    To better comprehend the climate and environmental issues affecting the mosquito species Anopheles gambiae & Anopheles funestus, the primary vectors of Plasmodium Faciparum malaria impacting Africa’s sub-Saharan desert it’s important to study the transmission and distribution data.  A south-eastern study from Kenya was retroactively reviewed with intense cross referencing of the vegetation, climate in elevation data were 30 villages in Malindi, Kilifi and the kwale Districts. (latitude and longitude of 3.2167° S & 40.1167° E, 3.6333° S & 39.8500° E and 4.1833° S & 39.4500° E, retrospectively.)

    Spatial autocorrelation using Moran’s 1 statistic were examined for transmission patterns as well as the high and low EIR clustering values utilizing Getis-Ord Gi* statistic.  Satellite sources supplied the environmental data were specific humanity, temperature and precipitation as well as (NDVI) or normalized difference vegetation indices as well as elevations. Bivariate correlations we’re used to review relationships between environmental and transmission measures as well as by comparing environment components differentiating low in high clustering when analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test.

    The spatial analysis utilized indicated that there were positive relationships between An. arabiensis and An. funestus transmission.  However, An. gambiae s.s.  Was also found to be widespread across a study region even though it did not correlate.  The high EIR values of An. arabiensis was found to be confined to Malindi’s lowland areas. An. funestus seem to be confined to the southern districts of Kwale and kilifi. An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s.  Head relatively similar environmental and spatial trends would clearly higher transmission rates associated with high precipitation, low temperature and NDVI and humidity.  Clearly statistical comparisons of these mosquito control issues indicated temperature and precipitation had significantly different impacts on these differing mosquito species.

    These results would seem to indicate that the distribution, abundance any impact of malaria transmission in various malaria vectors are driven largely in part by a wide variety of environmental factors.  A more comprehensive understanding of the precise ecological dynamics of each malaria spreading mosquito species can help to more clearly map and define how these carriers spread and the action and what the impact of climate change will be on the spread of malaria throughout the globe.


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  • world map 27.06.2012 No Comments

    Latitude and longitude are the coordinate components of our spherical system of geographic location. The third component is altitude, which is the radial distance from the center of the Earth.

    Latitude measures the angular displacement between the equator and the poles with vertex at the Earth’s center. Longitude measures the angular distance around the equatorial circle from Greenwich London England (more precisely the reference plane that passes through the center of the Earth and Greenwich), also with vertex at the Earth’s center. This reference line of longitude is called the Prime Meridiem.

    The equator is latitude zero degrees. The poles are 90º and -90° latitude for the north and south poles, respectively. The Prime Meridiem is zero degrees longitude. Exactly opposite the Prime Meridiem is the Ante Meridiem at +/-180º longitude.

    In contrast to the Cartesian coordinate system in which the horizontal component, X, is listed first, in the Spherical Coordinate System latitude, the vertical (north-south) component is listed first. In the Cartesian System the vertical component, Y, is listed second whereas in the Spherical System longitude, the horizontal (or east-west) component, is listed second.

    Latitude ranges from -90º, at the South Pole, to 90º at the North Pole, passing through 0º at the Equator. Longitude ranges from -180º, at the Ante Meridiem, 0º at the Prime Meridiem, and 180º back at the Ante Meridiem. In the two dimensional system of location the Spherical system is finite in contrast to the unbounded Cartesian system. When a value exceeds its range in the Spherical system it simply wraps around. This means if a value of 92º is specified for latitude this would be the same as 88º. If one were to travel north from the equator 92º one would hit the North Pole at 90º and then continue traveling south another 2º ending up in the opposite (in the east-west sense) hemisphere. Similarly, if one were to travel east from Greenwich, London, England 190º one would end up at the same place as one who traveled 170º west from the same starting point.

    The origins of latitude and longitude reach back to the third century BCE when Eratosthenes proposed a world map employing latitude and longitude. He was also the first to recognize that longitude can be calculated by comparing local time to a known reference time. The known reference time typically used is now known as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), but was formerly called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

    Longitude can be calculated by comparing local apparent noon to that of UTC. The sun moves west at 15º per hour, so if a locality experiences its apparent noon at 1400 (two hours after UTC noon) it would be at longitude 30º west of Greenwich, England. This is (15º/hour)(2 hours) = 30º. One could also use minutes instead of hours. There are 60 minutes in an hour, so 15º per hour equals 15º per 60 minutes or 1º per 4 minutes.

    In 1883 an international convention in Rome agreed upon the location of the Prime Meridian (meridian and meridiem are interchangeable) as Greenwich, England due its already predominant use in the maritime industry (65% of ships used it at the time). The United States took steps toward adoption in 1884 and Japan officially adopted it in 1886, but other countries were slow to follow. It wasn’t until after the sinking of the Titanic highlighted the confusion of multiple prime meridians that Greenwich England was adopted by all European maritime nations.

    The reason why we use a 360º based system has been lost to antiquity, but it has been speculated that since 360 is very close to the number of days in a year, that this is the basis. It is a convenient equivalency, to have the sun travel about one degree along its elliptical path over the earth each day.

    A degree of latitude on the Earth is roughly 69 miles and, for the most part, does not vary greatly from locality to locality. This is not true of longitude, though, since lines of longitude are furthest apart at the Equator, where they are about 69 miles apart, to no distance at all when they converge at the poles.

    The units of measure typically used for latitude and longitude are degrees of arc. These are broken down into minutes of arc where 60 minutes equal one degree. Minutes of arc are also broken down into 60 units. These are called, unsurprisingly, seconds of arc. If context provides sufficient clarity “of arc” can be dropped from our units, but care should be taken to avoid confusion with time or temperature.